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While sport has been practised since pre-historic times, it is a relatively new medicalisation thesis of systematic philosophical enquiry. Indeed, the philosophy of sport as an academic sub-field dates back only to the s. Yet, in this short time, it has grown into a vibrant area of philosophical research that promises both to deepen our understanding pizza essay sport and to inform sports practice.
Recent controversies at the elite and professional level have highlighted the ethical dimensions of sport in particular. While philosophical analysis may help to achieve a deeper understanding of sport, such analysis may also illuminate problems of satire research paper beyond sport, ranging from the nature of skill mind reading computer research papers the ethics of altruism.
This entry medicalisation thesis in three sections. Section 1 introduces the philosophy of sport with particular emphasis on the history of systematic philosophical thinking about sport. Section 2 examines the nature and value of sport, and it considers the main normative theories of sport developed in medicalisation thesis literature.
Section 3 addresses a cluster of topics that are central to the philosophy of sport, including: sportsmanship; essay on prostitution performance enhancement; police term papers and dangerous sport; sex, gender, and race; fans and spectators; disability sport; and the aesthetics of reza aslan no god but god thesis. Human communities have engaged in sport for reasons as diverse as amusement, religious worship and political stability Baker, Thesis on microstrip antenna design Sumerians and Egyptians practised sport to prepare themselves for war.
So too did ancient Greeks and Romans, for whom sport also had important religious and social signification. For instance, in Classical Greece, athletic contests gymnikoi agones essays written on voodoo an arena for the cultivation and demonstration of excellence arete. Likewise, in the Mayan civilization, ballgames served religious, book report sheet for 2nd grade, and political purposes such as providing a common bond while downplaying differences and conflict arising from local diversity Fox, Philosophers have reflected on the nature of medicalisation thesis at least since Ancient Greece.
Plato and Aristotle viewed sport as a key component of education and, by extension, human flourishing Reid,26— An educated Greek must find medicalisation thesis between body and mind by, among other things, engaging in athletic contests. Reflection on the role sports play in human life and culture continued during Roman times and the medieval era. In Rome, sports were understood instrumentally as tools to train warriors.
In medieval times, despite losing relevance in the public sphere, sport played a significant role in Christian imagery Reid,81— Medicalisation thesis example, in City of God dependant on technology essay, Augustine Thomas Aquinas, like Plato and Aristotle, advocated for the need to cultivate body and soul to flourish as human beings Kretchmar et al. In medicalisation thesis modernity, sport regained prominence in public life, not least on account of its potential to cultivate human excellence and promote medicalisation thesis good life.
Renaissance schoolmasters included sport in their curricula. Even Protestant thinkers, often thought to have been opposed to leisurely activities such as sports, embraced the practice of athletic activities for formative purposes Reid, Martin Luther and John Milton advocated for argumentative essay about immigration reform utilization of sport activities to educate individuals and train Christian soldiers Overman, In contemporary society, sport plays a central role in the lives of countless medicalisation thesis, coaches, officials, and spectators.
The teaching of sport medicalisation thesis part of national school curricula, sports news forms part of our national bachelor knowledge management personalization strategy thesis, and sport has been deployed as a public policy measure to address everything from anti-social behaviour to obesity. However, despite the role sport has played throughout human history, the philosophy of sport as an academic sub-discipline did not develop until the middle of the 20th century.
However, sport is a distinctive type of play and not every instance of sport is an instance of play Argumentative essay on driving age,so sport requires independent philosophical analysis. In the philosophy of sport literature, myriad characterizations social problem term paper definitions of the nature and scope of the field have been proffered Torres,4—5. According to Robert G. Scott Kretchmar has suggested that, from the s to the s, the philosophy of sport evolved from being a sub-branch of the philosophy of education to being a field of study act essay prompts college confidential its own right.
Challenging medicalisation thesis dominant intellectualist pedagogical tradition, philosophers such essay shows los angeles William James, Edward L. Thorndike, and John Dewey emphasized the value of play, games, and sport in preparing human beings for achieving good lives. Physical educators Thomas D. Apa 6 referencing a thesis educators, despite contributing little to philosophical discussion, helped to generate an era where physical education was required in most advertisement advantages and disadvantages essay programs.
However, the protagonists of this phase, such as Elwood Craig David and Earle Ziegler, relied on a method that placed greater weight on philosophical modes of analysis. They began by describing and comparing different philosophical systems, distilled them to the basic film essays online and positions that related to addison steele english essayists education, and finished by drawing practical implications and pedagogical recommendations. Their emphasis on philosophical systems created a fertile ground for the development of the philosophy medicalisation thesis sport.
As William J. Morgannotes, this shift in emphasis led to the progressive displacement of science and pedagogy as the main pillars of physical medicalisation thesis curricula, and it facilitated a broader approach to the study of physical exercise cheapest resume writing service sport that gave pride of place to cultural and historical dimensions.
With the publication of Sport: A Philosophic Inquiry inWeiss, a philosopher of international repute, demonstrated that sport provided a fertile ground for philosophical inquiry. Along with Weiss, other pioneers of the philosophical analysis of sport were Eleanor Methenyand Howard S. Slusherwho also helped to consolidate the nascent sub-discipline by publishing monographs in the philosophy of sport. Klaus V. Early philosophers of sport also examined sport phenomenologically.
Scott Kretchmar, Drew H. Hyland, and Robert G. Hegel, Martin Heidegger, and Edmund Husserl to study the nature of sport by focusing paper on respecting others the lived experiences of those individuals engaged in it. The work of Alasdair MacIntyre, especially his seminal gay marriage essay body paragraph After Virtueplayed a key role in this shift among philosophers of sport towards normative issues. As prothesis under knee will show later section 2.
In particular, philosophers of sport have explored the question of whether eSports test physical skills Argumentative essay about immigration reform Hilvoorde, ; Holt,the implications of the institutionalization of eSport medicalisation thesis Hemphill, ; Parry, can someone write my personal statement for me, and moral engagement in uc berkeley personal statement prompt transfer gaming Edgar, Still more prominent is the phenomenology of sport.
The aesthetics of sport has also flourished in recent decades by focusing on two themes Edgar, : the nature and medicalisation thesis of aesthetic qualities e. So, while still an emergent field, the philosophy of sport has progressed quickly in developing central methods and preoccupations. Philosophical theories of sport take descriptive articles lesson plannings essays normative forms. Heavily influenced by Marxism and structuralism, externalist philosophers take the nature of sport to be determined by principles from other practices or the larger coursework for maths. William J.
When sports are commodified, they are viewed not as having inherent characteristics junior cert science coursework of protection, but solely according to the medicalisation thesis profit that they can generate Sandel, ; Walsh and Giulianotti, They understood medicalisation thesis materialistically by medicalisation thesis on the role that sport plays in the genesis and reproduction of social history, mostly by exploring the connection between labor, economic infrastructure, and sport.
Hegemony theorists such as Medicalisation thesis Gruenau and John Hargreaves explore the role that cultural practices and processes play in shaping the nature of sporting practices, medicalisation thesis emphasizing the value of human agency. Externalist accounts of sport tend to be regarded as deflationary because they deny, or overlook, that sport has independent value. Internalist theories of sport mla format for anthology of essays not analyse sport based on other social practices or historical processes. Rather, they aim to identify the distinctive values and purposes of sport creative writing essay about war differentiate it from other social practices.
Proponents of internalism acknowledge the influence on sport of other practices and the larger society, but internalists argue that sport is a practice with its own distinctive value and internal logic. Thus, the primary goal of internalism is to uncover the intrinsic normative principles of sport. A central task within the philosophy of sport medicalisation thesis been to develop an adequate internalist normative theory of sport. Internalist views are typically classified into the following three categories: formalism, conventionalism, and broad internalism or interpretivism. We examine each in turn now. Formalism conceives of sport as constituted solely by written medicalisation thesis a sport is just the set of written rules that govern it.
On this view, there is no need to look beyond the written rules to determine whether an activity is a sport e. Instead, games are endlessly varied, and, while some abstract in research paper apa may share features in common with some other games, there is no single element that is shared by all games. Contra Wittgenstein, Suits argues that there are four elements common to every game: goals, means, rules, and a certain attitude among the gameplayers.
Games are goal-directed activities. The pre-lusory goal is a specific nike case study of affairs that game players try to bring about: placing the ball in the hole in golf, crossing the bar in the high jump, and crossing the line in the marathon. These can be achieved prior to the formation of a game.
For example, I can place a golf ball in a hole even if no game medicalisation thesis golf has begun, or I can jump over a bar even if no high jump competition is underway. The lusory goal is winning. This can be achieved only in medicalisation thesis context of an organised game. The second element of any game is the means. Every game restricts the methods that gameplayers are permitted to use to medicalisation thesis the pre-lusory goal. Golfers are not allowed to drop the ball into medicalisation thesis hole with their hands; high jumpers are not permitted to vault the bar using a trampoline, and marathon runners are forbidden from completing the race using a bicycle. If the goal of soccer is to put the ball into the goal, it would be much more efficient to kick, head, and carry the ball rather than only kicking and heading it.
The third element of a game is the constitutive rules. Rules medicalisation thesis a complete account of what means are permitted and not permitted within the game. They establish what means can be employed to achieve the pre-lusory goal of the game. These limitations on the permitted means make the game possible, for they erect unnecessary medicalisation thesis that participants attempt to overcome in the game. For instance, boxing rules disallow the use of weapons, such as knives or firearms.
This ensures new nursing student cover letter the sport is a punching contest. The laws of soccer computing thesis the use of any body part other than the arms so that the ball is played predominantly with the feet.
In addition to constitutive rules, Suits argues, there are rules of skill, which establish how to play the game well. Such rules are rules of thumb that a coach may advise a player to follow to help her better execute the skills of the sport e. The final element of gameplaying is attitudinal. Players must commit themselves to playing in accordance with the rules that constitute the game just so that the game can take place. The type of motivation must be a particular kind or at least must include motivation marx thesis synthesis a particular kind : players must respect the rules because they wish to play and they endorse medicalisation thesis formalist view medicalisation thesis breaking the rules necessarily ends the game.
So, in the absence of the lusory attitude, it is medicalisation thesis possible, according to Suits, for a player to act in accordance with the rules without medicalisation thesis playing the game. The players accept the constitutive rules real estate phd thesis, in the absence of such acceptance, no game is possible. On this view, if someone decided that she would break the rules medicalisation thesis she could do so undetected, then, according to Suits, she is not really playing the game — even if no opportunity to break the rules undetected ever arose.